According to the Joint Monitoring Programme Report, Bangladesh has achieved the target of 100% access to sanitation by 2015 (WHO-UNICEF) and according to the 2018 Sanitation Status Report issued by Ministry of Water Supply, Government of Nepal, the country has almost fulfilled the open defecation free at the 96.3% coverage. This achievement introduces both countries into a second generation issue for the management of the faecal sludge. With the increase in sanitation coverage in urban areas using septic tanks and pit latrines, it is expected that faecal sludge volume will increase considerably within a few years. If proper collection and disposal systems are not in place, serious environmental degradation and associated health risk will increase due to the unsafe disposal usually in rivers and open environment.

United Cities and Local governments Asia Pacific with financial support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is implementing the Municipalities Network Policy Advocacy on Sanitation partnering with Municipal Association of Bangladesh (MAB) and Municipal Association of Nepal (MuAN) to strengthen capacity of the municipalities in designing and implementing robust and effective policies and in developing sustainable financing strategies on sanitation, particularly on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) and Non-Sewered Sanitation (NSS). The initiative is expected to significantly contribute to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals target 6.2 on Clean Water and Sanitation.